The body of information germane to caring for ROP— from infancy to adulthood — continues to grow. It is hoped that greater understanding of the pathophysiology of ROP will lead to novel effective therapeutic strategies. Pharmacologic stabilization of aberrant angiogenesis may be one approach.
High-quality evidence-based clinical data provide guidance as to when to start surveillance at-risk infants, as well as how often and how long they should be monitored. Digital fundus imaging and genetic testing have the potential to revolutionize ROP-surveillance efforts. Prospective studies have provided guidance regarding earlier treatment of high-risk zone 1 and zone 2 eyes.
Surgical intervention offers the potential for preservation of vision for eyes with ROP-related retinal detachment, particularly if addressed prior to macular distortion or detachment. There are significant long-term ocular sequelae of ROP, underscoring the importance of lifelong follow-up of individuals born prematurely.